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Moon goddess of Goguryeo
|Revised Romanization||Hangug sinhwa|
Korean mythology consists of national legends and folk-tales which come from all over the Korean Peninsula. Even within the same ethnic group, myths tend to have slightly different variations. For example, in Korea, there are differences in the way of life between those living on the mainland and Cheju Island, and in turn, these differences generate different forms of myths.
The form of belief which we call animism today was the prime source of religious life for the Han race (Korean). The belief of Koreans, originated from the worship of nature. In the primitive age, the people were so struck with wonders at the mysterious and marvelous formation of nature that they believed that the spirit existed in such universal as well as the sun, moon, stars, mountains and rivers, and even in strange animals, rocks and trees. Aside from worshipping the mysterious forces of these creations, they perceived that the spirit also possessed the potential to direct the vicissitudes of human life. Thus, they offered tributes and sacrifices in order to avoid the disastrous harms imposed by the spirits, and performed various forms of services to sustain the life of comfort and delight. Among many natural creations, the worship of the sun had been most particular.
With some improvements made on such as animistic form of religion, the new Shinkyo belief subsequently emerged in the primeval society. The natural creation was not the only object of worship in this newly developed religion, but the existence of gods managing certain particular fields of work and, at the same time, the existence of the human soul were also believed. Among many natural creations, the worship of the sun had been most particular.
Such a form of religion, in which the exorcist executes various rituals for the Heavenly God and conducts magic to conjure the evil spirits, is generally recognized as Shinkyo in Korea, although many scholars termed it a shamanism. The exorcist official was highly looked upon as a man who was a deity or a fairy. The first one who came into being a man of deity or a fairy in the history of Korea was Dankun, sometimes referred as Dankun Deity or Dankun Fairy.
As the reign of the king expanded from the time when the country was divided by the Three Kingdoms of Kokuryo, Baekje, and Silla, the group of the sorcery officials were relegated to street diviners, witches, or wizards. Around this time, Buddhism reached the Three Kingdoms (4~5th century). Buddhism not only received the royal protection but, since its teachings and preceptios were not entirely inconsistent with those of the native Shinkyo, made a remarkable progress in conciliation with the home religion. During the Koryo Dynasty, the local religion of Shinkyo survived through the shadows of the powerful Buddhism with a great potentiality. From the middle of the Dynasty, however, the formalities of the Shinkyo festivals were seasoned with much of the Buddhist flavors. During the Chosun Dynasty, shamanism flourished extensively among the people in the first part of the Chosun Dynasty. For it was a period of no outstanding religion for the masses with Buddhism pressed into the backfround, and the Confucianism of less appealing contents was unacceptable to the people. However from the middle of the dynasty, it was almost completely subdued by the Confucian influence which can be seen through the incident of ‘the removal of the sokyuk-su (pavilion)’.
At the closure of the last Chosun Dynasty, the Shinkyo religion was restored with the upsurge of a national spirits, the Daejong-kyo. On the basis of the scriptures founded by Baek, Bong, the doctrines of the Dajong-kyo was composed in combination with Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism elements.
However, in the 1970s, Korean oral mythology suffered extreme suppression by the government, as shamanism was deemed to be 'superstition'. This became called the Anti-Superstition Movement, and the myths of the Korean people suffered greatly from the movement. However, in the 2000s, mythology has made a comeback.
The Kut, a Korean shamanistic ritual, is the origin of all Korean oral myths and is the prime mechanism for handing down myths to successive generations. It is certain that no Korean oral myths would exist today without the kut. Therefore, the kut is undeniable the mother of all Korean oral myths. In the Kut the shaman offers a sacrifice and begs the spirits to intervene to solve problems in people’s daily lives. To solve a problem that is beyond one’s capability, one must request a solution from a god. Koreans believed that all gods possessed different types of divine authority. It was important therefore for Koreans chose to praise the greatness of a god indirectly by praising the process of obtaining almighty power. Thus, by knowing the process and praising it, Koreans believed that the god would eventually solve their problems. Consequently, Korean oral myths are focused on explaining the god’s background stories.
In Korean mythology, three realms are strongly mentioned; Iseung, Yongwangguk, and Jeoseung. Two other realms are vaguely mentioned; Okhwang, located in the sky, and Jihaguk, located underground.
Koreans referred to the mortal world as Iseung, meaning this world. It was home to the Gashin, or household gods, many Bonhyangshin (village gods) and Josangshin (ancestral deities), as well as the Sanshin, or mountain gods. Evil spirits (Gwishin), such as Mongdal (spirits of unmarried man) and Songaxi (spirits of unmarried woman), also occupied this realm, as did Dokkaebi, the trickster spirits of old tools. Certain deities regularly crossed over from their abode into Iseung; these were Chasa, the envoy gods. These included Jeoseung Chasa, the reapers of the dead, who features in most death-related myths; Okhwang Chasa, who brought the hero Hwanguyangssi to the Palace of Cheonha in the Seongju Puli; and gods such as Choribdongi of the Gunung Bonpuli., who occasionally crossed over from the sea.
Yongwangguk is the undersea kingdom, occupied by the Yongwang, the five gods of the ocean; their names are Gwangdeok of the east, Gwangli of the south, Gwangtaek of the west, and Gwangyeon of the north These gods could marry <between each other; for example, in the Samseung Halmang Bonpuli, the daughter of Gwangtaek married Gwangdeok. However, there is war, too, in Yongwangguk; in the Gunung Bonpuli, Gwangtaek is slain by Gwangdeok's army.
Jeoseung is ruled by the ten Underworld gods, the Yeoldaewnag. The Yeoldaewang offer different punishments; Jingang shreds sinners to pieces, Sogan burns sinners in an iron pot, Songye whips sinners and exiles them, and Ogan offers the blessed fire to withstand the cold and makes sinners pass naked through his icy realm. Yeomyeo rips the tongues of those who earned money through interest, Bingshin hurls sinners in a pit full of lizards, spiders, and snakes, Taesan grinds the flesh of sinners inside a barn, and Paengdeung shreds sinners with a saw. Those who are destroyed in Paengdeung's realm must reincarnate into the twelve beasts. Doshi undresses sinners, hangs them on a tree, and hits them ruthlessly, and Yeolsi sends the blessed into the village of Sang, located in Mt.Seokhyo, and sends sinners into a dark realm where there is no light.
There is also a vague mention of Okhwang, the abode of the sky gods, and Jiha, abode of the earth gods. In Okhwang is a Palace called Cheonha; in Jiha, there are many monsters, female deities, and pine trees.
Finally, there is said to be a dark realm that has no light. The king of that realm sends his gigantic hounds, the Bulgae, to hunt the sun and the moon and bring them to his realm; however, when the Bulgae bite the sun and the moon, they find that they are too hot/cold and run away to their realm. When the Bulgae bites the sun, it is called a solar eclipse; when they bite the moon, it is a lunar eclipse.
Just as different experts were respected equally, all Korean gods were equally respected in their fields. Koreans viewed all gods as equal because they were there to solve problems in people’s lives. Therefore, in order to better understand Korean oral myths, it is important to set the types of problems that may occur in everyday living situations.
The Korean myths sampled from different regions clearly demonstrate that there are various gods who take essentially identical roles, but appear in different plots. For example, Mireuk in the Changsega and Dosu Munjang in the Chogamje are both creator gods, but their myth is entirely different. In the Changsega, Mireuk makes the world and everything in it, while in the Chogamje, Dosu Munjang makes only the world, the suns, and the moons. Throughout Korea, myths tell of Mireuk (Northern Korea), the Humun brothers (Central Korea), or Daebyeol (Southern Korea), who destroyed each of the two suns and moons. It is difficult to classify them as different myths.
Oppositely, there are myths with a similar plot, but a different role for the characters. For example, the myth of Danggeum Aegi and the Hyeongbul brothers (northern and central Korea) and the myth of Queen Nogadanpungjajimyeong and the Chogong brothers (southern Korea) have nearly the same plot; a virgin has premarital sex with a priest by accident, and have three sons, who search out their father. However, in the Danggeum Aegi myth, Danggeum Aegi becomes the goddess of childbirth, and her sons become the gods of life. In the Nogadanpungjajimyeong myth, Queen Nogadanpungjajimyeong becomes the goddess of luck, and her sons become the Underworld gods.
Korean myths tend to focus on the role played by the god who is the protagonist in the story. Accordingly, Choi explained Korean myths according to the roles of the gods.
The separation of heaven and earth, the creation of the sun, the moon and stars, the origin of fire and water, the origin of clothing and cooking, the genesis of humans, and the fight over this world and the underworld are systematically organized and well presented in creation myths, which convey the true essence of mythological philosophy.
These myths are rare compared to other myths of the peninsula, as the creator deities have no direct connection with the people. However, there are three surviving myths concerning creation; the Changsega of Hamheung, the Sirumal of Seoul, and the Cheonjiwang Bonpuli of Jeju Island.
Among these, the Changsega retells the creation of the world and the conflict between the creator and his usurper. Many themes in the Changsega are unique to Korea. According to the Changsega, Mireuk parted the world by putting four copper pillars between the earth and the sky. He destroyed each of the two suns and two moons and crafted the stars with the destroyed sun and moon. Mireuk discovered fire and water from a mouse after torturing it (as a gift to the mouse, Mireuk gave it the barns of the world), and made the first clothes from a kudzu vine. He created humans from five golden bugs and five silver bugs. The bugs grew into humans; the silver ones were women and the golden ones were male.
Suddenly, the deity Seokga attempted to usurp Mireuk in three contests. In the first contest, which judged who could stretch their ropes across the East Sea, Seokga's silver rope broke, but Mireuk's golden rope did not. Thus, Mireuk claimed victory.
In the second contest, the deities had to make the Seongcheon river connect to all other rivers in the universe. Seokga called on rainstorms, but he could not make the Seongcheon connect with all other rivers. Mireuk called on winter ice, and made the Seongcheon connect with all other rivers (because water expands when frozen).
In the final contest, Mireuk and Seokga grew a magnolia flower. While the two deities were sleeping, the deity that the magnolia reached for would be the winner. The magnolia reached for Mireuk, but Seokga severed the magnolia and put it in his lap. The angered Mireuk cursed the earth, creating prostitution, betrayal, mental disorder, bragging, and other imperfections of the world. Seokga, the injust victor, then imprisoned Mireuk.
In three days, Mireuk fled his prison by transforming into a musk deer. In response, Seokga led his three thousand priests to kill Mireuk. Seokga killed and ate the musk deer, and shared Mireuk's flesh with his priests. But two of the priests refused to eat the venison. They were killed by Seokga, and turned into a large rock and a pine tree. However, people still eat flower pancakes (Hwajeon) in remembrance of the murdered priests.
There are three recorded flood myths in Korea. In the sibling intermarriage myth, mankind continued its existence through the marriage between a sibling who survived a gigantic flood.
In the Namu Doryeong myth, Namu Doryeong played a similar role in the continuation of our history after a big flood. Namu Doryeong was the son of a laurell tree spirit, who survived the flood by floating on the laurell. He first saved a colony of ants from the flood, then a swarm of mosquitoes, until he had saved all the animals of the world. Namu Doryeong finally saved a young human boy, despite the laurell's advice against it.
After the flood, Namu Doryeong met a crone and her two daughters on Mt. Baekdu. The crone's family did not die because Mt. Baekdu was the highest mountain in Korea. The crone gave Namu Doryong a contest, and if Namu Doryeong won, he could have her daughter's hand in marriage. Namu Doryeong won the contest because of the aid of a swarm of ants. The ants were the very ants that Namu Doryeong had saved.
Thus, Namu Doryeong and the boy married the crone's two daughters, and they formed the next race of humans.
The underworld myths
One of the most important things we need to note in this myth is that the underworld controls the death of people. In other words, people will go to the underworld after they die. Also, even Yeomra, the King of the Underworld, can be captured by an officer in the mortal world.
The best-known death myth is the Chasa Bonpuli myth. The hero Gangrim Doryeong is ordered to capture Yeomra, King of the Underworld, by his king (Kimchiwonnim) in order to discover the reason for the mysterious deaths of the three sons of Gwayanggaxi. With help from Munshin, the door god, and Jowangshin, the kitchen god, Gangrim Doryeong captures Yeomra. After testing Gangrim Doryeong's wisdom, Yeomra tells Kimchiwonnim that the mysterious deaths are because the three sons are actually the three princes of Beomul, who were murdered by Gwayanggaxi. They chose to be reborn as Gwayanggaxi's sons to take revenge on their killers. Gangrim Doryeong became the death god, who reaps dead souls and brings them to the underworld.
In other myths, the protagonist cheats death. This theme is universal throughout Korea, and appears in the form of Hwangcheon Honshi (of Northeast Korea), Jangja Puli (of Southwest Korea), Samani Bonpuli (of Jeju Island), and the myth of General Sineui (Southeast Korea). In most of these stories, the protagonist bribes the death gods into cheating death.
Birth and agriculture myths
The two main elements in the birth myth are birth and agriculture. The birth myth is closely related to women, since only women have the secret of reproduction. Thus, the three concepts of birth, agriculture and women (or goddesses) are the important keywords in understanding the birth myth.
The myths about Samshin (goddess of birth) and the Samsegyeong (the three gods of agriculture) are examples of this. In the Samshin myth, both of the main characters (the maleovelant Princess of the Dragon Palace of the East Sea and the kind Princess of the Kingdom of Myeongjin) are female.
In the romantic Segyeong Bonpuli myth, the protagonist is the woman Jacheong Bi. In this story, Jacheong Bi disguiises herself as a man, and goes to school with the teenaged deity Mun Doryeong. After secretly pretending she was a man for three years, she sends a letter on a leaf while Mun Doryeong is bathing, telling Mun Doryeong the truth. Mun Doryeong and Jacheong Bi share love that night, then Mun Doryeong leaves for Heaven.
Mun Doryeong does not return, and Jacheong Bi sends her slave, Jeongsu Nam, to log in the woods and feed the cattle. However, Jeongsu Nam devours all the cattle, drops his axe in a lake, and gets all his clothes stolen. However, Jeongsu Nam lies to Jacheong Bi that he met Mun Doryeong, and tries to have an affair with Jacheong Bi. Jacheong Bi kills Jeongsu Nam by piercing his ear with a thorned branch. Jeongsu Nam's soul flies away, turning into an owl.
Jacheong Bi is chased out of the house because she murdered someone, and she finds herself weaving the clothes for Mun Doryeong's wedding. She signs her name in the clothes, and Mun Doryeong returns to Jacheong Bi; however, Jacheong Bi stabs Mun Doryeong with a needle, chasing him away.
Jacheong Bi again disguises herself as a man and goes to the house of Sara Doryeong, who has flowers that can revive the dead (Hwansaengkkot). She apologizes to Jeongsu Nam, who (in the form of an owl) has been magically cursing Sara Doryeong. The owl dies, and Sara Doryeong gives Jacheong Bi his third daughter and the Hwansaengkkot. Because Jacheong Bi is a woman and does not want to have an affair with another woman, Jacheong Bi flees with the Hwansaengkkot and brings Jeongsu Nam back to life. However, Jacheong bi's parents consider it evil to make a dead person be alive again, and chase Jacheong Bi away again.
Jacheong Bi encounters Mun Doryeong, and comes to heaven with him. However, Mun Doryeong had already promised to marry the daughter of King Seosu, a ruler of Heaven. Mun Doryeong's father, King Munseon, tells the two women that the one who could cross a burning trail filled with knives would be Mundoryeong's wife. The daughter of Seosuwang refused, but Jacheong Bi crossed the bridge. When she wiped her blood, menstration began.
When Jacheong Bi's new husband, Mun Doryeong, is ordered to fight an army of rebel ghosts, Jacheong Bi sends Mun Doryeong to Sara Doryeong's mansion while she fights. She destroys the rebelling spirits, but Sara Doryeong's third daughter does not want Mun Doryeong to leave. Thus, the third daughter saddls Mun Doryeong's horse backwards. Jacheong Bi is angered when she sees Mun Doryeong riding with his back towards her, and parts from Mun Doryeong. Jacheong Bi rejoins Jeongsu Nam, and with Mun Doryeong, they become the gods of agriculture.
Myths about shamans
Most Korean folklore is passed on by a shaman who performs a shamanistic ceremony called a kut. Shamans are thus responsible for transmitting myths. Shamans belong to a despised social class, so it is quite intriguing that they served as transmitters of myths which are sacred stories. We can find the answer to this question in the origin myth of shamans. In ancient times, shamans belonged to the sacred class well respected by the community. Therefore, it is quite understandable that there should be myths about the ancestors of shamans i.e. the origin myth of shamans.
The ancestral shaman is believed to be Bari. Bari was the seventh daughter of King Ogu, but she was abandoned in infancy. Because he abandoned his daughter, King Ogu suddenly fell sick. King Ogu's wife discovered Bari. After finding out that the only way to cure King Ogu of his sickness would be to drink the water of Mt. Dongdae, Bari began her journey.
First, Bari encountered an old man who was plowing the field. Bari decided to plow the field for the old man. Suddenly, hundreds of magical animals fell from the sky and plowed the field. In return, the old man told Bari the direction of Mt. Dongdae.
Bari encountered a fork on the road. Bari did not know which direction to take, so she asked an old woman. In return, Bari washed the old woman's clothes and killed the lice crawling over her. The old woman then told which trail to take, and gave Bari a golden bell and a branch with three magical flowers. In fact, the old woman was Mago, the creator of the world.
Bari crossed a range of twelve mountains. Each of the mountains were full of ghosts, but their howling could not stop Bari from crossing them. Finally, Bari encountered the Hwangcheon River, a river that only the dead could cross. The guards of Hwangcheon forbade Bari from riding the boat that crossed the river. Bari showed them the flowers that Mago had given her. The flowers signified that Bari was a goddess, and the guards gave permission for Bari to cross the river.
When Bari reached the Underworld, she found a fortress built of iron thorns. When she waved the flowers, the fortress melted away into smoke, and all the sinners imprisoned in the fortress were set free.
Bari then reached a pink river. The water of this river could melt human flesh. When Bari waved the bell, a rainbow bridge formed over the river. Bari crossed the rainbow bridge and reached Mt. Dongdae.
In Mt. Dongdae, Dongsuja, keeper of Mt. Dongdae, married Bari and had three children. Only after the third child was born did Dongsuja reveal the water of Mt. Dongdae. The Hwansaengkkot, or flowers that could revive the dead, grew next to the water. She took each of the flowers and scooped up some of the water.
When she came back, she found that Dongsuja had abandoned her and her three children. Bari returned to her home in no time, but found that both King Ogu and the queen were dead. She brought her parents back to life with the Hwansaengkkot, and cured the sickness with the water. Bari became the death goddess, the guider of the dead to the Underworld. She also became the first shaman, and the patron of all the shamans in Korea.
Disease myths are about the gods who give all kinds of disease to us. The representative myth is the Sonnimgut. The fifty-three Sonnimne are the deities of smallpox. However, even the Sonnimne, who bring smallpox, can grant longevity and success.
According to the Sonnimgut, fifty-three smallpox gods, called the Sonnimne, lived in China. However, the Sonnimne wanted to live in Korea. Three Sonnimne, led by the beautiful goddess Gaxi Sonnim, headed to Korea.
However, they could not cross the Yalu River. One day, a ferryman said that the three gods could cross the Yalu on his boat if Gaxi Sonnim shared love with him. Gaxi Sonnim promptly severed the ferryman's head with a dagger. Then, she gave deadly smallpox to the ferryman's seven sons, killing the eldest six. The seventh son survived, albeit completely disabled. Then, they crossed the Yalu on the ferryman's boat.
When the gods reached Seoul, they attempted to sleep in the house of the rich Kim Jangja, but was refused. Instead, they slept in the shack of the kind crone, Nogo Halmi. After blessing Nogo Halmi's granddaughter with longetivity and good luck, the trio headed towards Kim Jangja's mansion.
Kim Jangja hid his son Cheolhyeon in a high mountain, and burned peppers on every street (pepper was said to drive away the Sonnimne). The angered Sonnimne attacked Cheolhyeon, first luring him out of the mountain then whipping him. The Sonnimne pierced silver needles in Cheolhyeon's joints, and finally, Kim Jangja promised to have a sacrifice made for the Sonnimne. However, the promise was false. The greatly angered Sonnimne killed Cheolhyon, and took him as the fifty-fourth Sonnimne.
While the Sonnimne were returning to China, they found that Nogo Halmi lived in Kim Jangja's mansion with her granddaughter and son-in-law, while Kim Jangja lived as a sick beggar in Nogo Halmi's shack. When Cheolhyeon cried out at this situation, the Sonnimne gave Kim Jangja some money and cured his sickness. Only since then did Cheolhyeon truly join the Sonnimne.
The Gashin are patrons of the house, the rooms, and various objects. As the keepers of the family, myths about the Gashin are about the prevention of the destruction of the family.
For example, in the Munjeon Bonpuli, the evil goddess of the outhouse, Noiljadae (or her daughter, depending on the source), kills Yeosan Buin and attempts to kill the seven children. However, Noiljadae suicides when her plan is foiled by the seventh son, Nokdisaengin, and Yeosan Buin is brought back to life through the Hwansaengkkot flowers.
In the Seongju Puli, the evil magician Sojinhang attempts to claim the earth goddess. However, Sojinhang is defeated, and he turns into a Jangseung, or totem pole. His daughters turn into the Seonangshin.
In the Seongjo Puri myth, the protagonist, Ansimguk of Seongjo, abandons his wife, Gyehwa Buin. As a result, he is abandoned in a bare island, where he lives for three years as a furred beast.
Korean hero myths tend to blend with other myths. For example, the Chasa Bonpuli introduced earlier is a prime example of a hero myth; however, it is also related to the myths concerning the Underworld, and is treated as such. In the Chasa Bonpuli myth, the mortal Gangrim Doryeong captures Yeomra, King of the Underworld, and brings him to his homeland.
Another hero myth is the Cheonjiwang Bonpuli myth. The protagonist, Daebyeol, shoots down the sun and the moon, destroying it. However, the Cheonjiwang Bonpuli is more of a creation myth than a hero myth.
An example of a 'pure' hero myth is the Gunung Bonpuli myth. In the Gunung Bonpuli, the giant Wang Janggun kills the Dragon King of the West Sea with an arrow at the request of the Dragon King of the East Sea. The Dragon King of the East Sea gives his daughter's hand in marriage, and the giant Wang Janggun and his three sons become the Gunungshin, or war gods.
Korea has a rich folklore tradition with deep links to Korean shamanism. For example, the folklore about Simcheong, a girl who threw herself into the oceans, is derived from the Simcheonggut myth. The Simcheonggut myth was originally used to cure eye disease (Smcheong miraculously cured her father's blindness), but during the suppression of Korean Shamanism in the Joseon Dynasty, the myth evolved into a folktale.
Other folktales involve Korean deities. In one folklore, an axeman encounters a Sanshin, the gods of individual mountains. Sanshin gives the axeman golden and silver axes.
Recent achievements in keeping Korean folklore alive have been the 150 part animated TV series, "Animentary Korean Folklore", telling old tales anew but with traditional 2-D Korean styled animation.
In Korea itself, the comic series With God brought a national interest about Korean mythology. The comic stars deities such as the Shiwang (ten kings of the Underworld), Gangrim Doryeong (death god), Jowangshin, and Cheukshin.
Korean mythology has also given birth to several online role-playing games, most notably NexusTK.
- Cheonjiwang - The supreme ruler of the world, father of Daebyeol and Sobyeol.
- Daebyeol - Supreme King of the Underworld. The ten Shiwang are his lieutenants.
- Sobyeol - Supreme King of the Mortal World. Sobyeol rules the mortals, but his power is lesser than Daebyeol's.
- Queen Baji - Supreme Queen of the Earth. She is Cheonjiwang's husband, and the mother of Daebyeol and Sobyeol.
- Dal(soon)-nim - The Moon, brother of the Sun.
- Hae(sik)-nim - The Sun, sister of the Moon.
- Cheonha Daejanggun -Village Guardian & General under Heaven, husband of Jiha yeojanggun. He is represented as a totem pole with a scary face, constructed in front of a village entrance.
- Jiha yeojanggun - Village Guardian & General under Earth, wife of Cheonha Daejanggun. She is represented as a totem pole with also scary but more feminine face, constructed in front of a village entrance with her husband. She protects the village with her husband.
- Sanshin - Mountain gods
- Gashin - the patrons of various rooms and objects in the household
- Jowangshin - a Gashin; the deity of fire and the hearth
- Teojushin - a Gashin and the earth deity
- Nulgubjishin - god of grain
- Cheukshin - goddess of the outhouse
- Seongjushin - the god of the actual house; supreme leader of the Gashin
- Munshin - the door god
- Oeyangganshin - the patron of cattle and horses
- Cheollyung - god of the spice pots
- Eobshin - goddess of wealth
- Samshin - goddess of childbirth
- Yongwang - The five Dragon Kings of the seas, but not necessarily a dragon (usually an old human).
- Ogushin - Princess Bari (see above) became the Ogushin after reviving her dead parents. After the Jeoseung Chasa (death gods) split the soul from the body, the Ogushin guides them to the Underworld.
- Honshi Seongin - the three gods who avoided the Jeoseung Chasa and lived for an additional sixty years. They protect children from illness.
- Jeoseung Halmang - The goddess who brings death to children.
- Shiwang - Ten kings of the Underworld, who judge the dead in each individual realm.
- Yeomra - Leader of the Shiwang.
- Sonnimne (see above) - Fifty-four smallpox deities. Only four are named; Gaxi Sonnim, Hoban Sonnim, Muban Sonnim, and Cheolhyeon.
- Seonnyeo - Angel-like beings. They are the female lieutenants of Cheonjiwang. The only named Seonnyeo is Oneuli.
- Juhseung Chasa - Gods of death. Traditionally three, these gods reap dead souls. When they read a person's name three times, the person dies. Their leader is Gangrim Doryeong (also see above), a mortal who captured Yeomra, King of the Underworld. His lieutenants are Hae Wonmaek and Yi Deokchun. Meanwhile, Hwadeok Chasa reaps those who died on fires. Yonggung Chaasa reaps those who died in the ocean, Danmul Chasa takes those who drowned in wells, and Tuseok Chasa reaps those who were killed by rocks or stones.
- Sosamshin, goddess of cowbirth
- Kumiho (구미호) - A many-tailed fox who can use powerful illusions and curses.
- Bulyeowoo (불여우) - A fox that is more than 100 years old, and can be disguised as a woman.
- Dokkaebi (goblins) (도깨비) - spirits who keep clubs and enjoy mischievous tricks. Most are believed to possess horns and magical powers.
Gwishin are the departed souls of people who have died.
- Mool-Gwishin 물귀신 a departed soul in water
- Cho-nyo-Gwishin 처녀귀신 the departed soul of a virgin
- Mong-Dal-Gwishin 몽달귀신 the departed soul of an unmarried man
- Dal-Gyal-Gwishin 달걀귀신 a ghost with an egg (Dal-Gyal 달걀) head, whose face has no eyes, nose, or mouth
- Hwandan Gogi
- Korean culture
- Korean literature
- List of Korea-related topics
- Cheonyeo gwisin
- Jeoseung Chasa
- Mongdal gwisin
- Gashin cult
- Munjeon Bonpuli
- Igong Bonpuli
- Cheonjiwang Bonpuli
- Template:An illustrated guide to Korean mythology
- Template:A history of religions in Korea
- Alive Korean Mythology
- "Virtual Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Religion-Shamanism-Shamanistic Myths-Gunung Bonpuli". http://folkency.nfm.go.kr/minsok/dic_index.jsp?P_MENU=03&DIC_ID=2467&ref=T3&S_idx=1&P_FIELD=F03&cur_page=1.
- "Virtual Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Religion-Shamanism-Shamanistic Deities-Yongshin". http://folkency.nfm.go.kr/minsok/dic_index.jsp?P_MENU=03&DIC_ID=2711&ref=T3&S_idx=41&P_FIELD=F02&cur_page=5.
- Changsega, page 16-19
- Alive Korean Mythology, page 140-158
- Alive Korean Mythology, page 91-109
- Alive Korean Mythology, page 68-75
||This article has an unclear citation style. (September 2009)|